Network controllers were originally implemented as expansion cards that plugged into a computer bus. A user-level network stack” PDF. A network interface controller NIC , also known as a network interface card , network adapter , LAN adapter or physical network interface ,  and by similar terms is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network. Retrieved May 2, When a CPU just isn’t fast enough”. Newer server motherboards may have multiple network interfaces built-in.
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These define a standard receptacle for media-dependent transceivers, so users can easily adapt the network interface to their needs.
The low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard. Each receive queue is assigned to a separate interrupt ethhernet by routing each of those interrupts to different CPUs or CPU coresprocessing of the interrupt requests triggered by the network traffic received by a single NIC can be distributed improving performance.
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Retrieved March 26, The NIC is both a physical layer and data link layer device, as it provides physical access to a networking medium and, for IEEE and similar networks, provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses that are uniquely assigned to network interfaces. An Ethernet network controller typically has an 8P8C socket where the network cable is connected.
Network interface controller
A separate network card is typically no longer required unless etherney independent network connections are needed or some non-Ethernet type of network is used.
A general trend in computer hardware is towards integrating the various components of systems on a chipand this is also applied to network interface cards.
This page was last edited on 21 Decemberat That way, taking the application locality into account results in higher overall performance, reduced latency and better hardware utilization, resulting from the higher utilization of CPU caches ethernnet fewer required context switches. Multiqueue NICs provide multiple transmit and receive queuesallowing packets received by the NIC to be assigned to one of its receive queues.
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Early network interface controllers were commonly implemented on expansion cards that plugged into a computer bus. It is primarily used with high-speed network interfaces, such as Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernetfor which the processing overhead of the network stack becomes significant. The NIC allows computers to communicate over a computer network, either by using cables or wirelessly. Some NICs offer integrated field-programmable gate arrays FPGAs for user-programmable processing of network traffic before it reaches the host computer, allowing for significantly reduced latencies in time-sensitive workloads.
The network controller implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet or Wi-Fi. With multiqueue NICs, additional performance improvements can be achieved by distributing outgoing traffic among different transmit queues.
A s Ethernet network interface controller that connects to the motherboard via the now-obsolete Etherent bus.
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Newer server motherboards may have multiple network interfaces built-in. This kind of functionality is usually referred to as user-level networking.
The low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most new computers have a network interface controller built into jtec motherboard.
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Some NICs  support transmit and receive queues without kernel support allowing the NIC to execute even when the functionality of the operating system of a critical system has been severely compromised.
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